Ingress

Ingress

What is Ingress? Ingress, added in Kubernetes v1.1, exposes HTTP and HTTPS routes from outside the cluster to services within the cluster. Traffic routing is controlled by rules defined on the Ingress resource.


  internet
      |
  [ Ingress ]
  --|-----|--
  [ Services ]

An Ingress can be configured to give services externally-reachable URLs, load balance traffic, terminate SSL, and offer name based virtual hosting. An Ingress controller is responsible for fulfilling the Ingress, usually with a load balancer, though it may also configure your edge router or additional frontends to help handle the traffic.

An Ingress does not expose arbitrary ports or protocols. Exposing services other than HTTP and HTTPS to the internet typically uses a service of type NodePort or LoadBalancer.

You must have an ingress controller to satisfy an Ingress. Only creating an Ingress resource has no effect.

You may need to deploy an Ingress controller such as AWS ALB Ingress Controller. You can choose from a number of Ingress controllers.

Ideally, all Ingress controllers should fit the reference specification. In reality, the various Ingress controllers operate slightly differently.

The Ingress Resource

A minimal ingress resource example for ingress-nginx:


apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: test-ingress
  annotations:
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: /
spec:
  rules:
  - http:
      paths:
      - path: /testpath
        backend:
          serviceName: test
          servicePort: 80

As with all other Kubernetes resources, an Ingress needs apiVersion, kind, and metadata fields. The name of an Ingress object must be a valid DNS subdomain name. For general information about working with config files, see deploying applications, configuring containers, managing resources. Ingress frequently uses annotations to configure some options depending on the Ingress controller, an example of which is the rewrite-target annotation. Different Ingress controller support different annotations. Review the documentation for your choice of Ingress controller to learn which annotations are supported.

The Ingress spec has all the information needed to configure a load balancer or proxy server. Most importantly, it contains a list of rules matched against all incoming requests. Ingress resource only supports rules for directing HTTP traffic.

Ingress rules

Each http rule contains the following information:

  • An optional host. In this example, no host is specified, so the rule applies to all inbound HTTP traffic through the IP address specified. If a host is provided (for example, foo.bar.com), the rules apply to that host.
  • A list of paths (for example, /testpath), each of which has an associated backend defined with a serviceName and servicePort. Both the host and path must match the content of an incoming request before the load balancer will direct traffic to the referenced service.
  • A backend is a combination of service and port names as described in the Services doc. HTTP (and HTTPS) requests to the Ingress matching the host and path of the rule will be sent to the listed backend.

A default backend is often configured in an Ingress controller that will service any requests that do not match a path in the spec.

Default Backend

An Ingress with no rules sends all traffic to a single default backend. The default backend is typically a configuration option of the Ingress controller and is not specified in your Ingress resources.

If none of the hosts or paths match the HTTP request in the Ingress objects, the traffic is routed to your default backend.

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